ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023: Geography is an elective topic in ISC class 12 and some of the fashionable topics within the humanities stream. Examine right here the ISC Class twelfth Geography syllabus for each concept and undertaking work for the 2022-23 examination session and obtain PDF.
ISC Class twelfth Geography Syllabus 2023: Geography is the examine of locations and the relationships between folks and their environments. Geography is each scientific and historic in nature. It additionally could be considered as a topic of common information. As a consequence of its expansive nature and educative ideas, Geography is among the favorite topics of scholars. Excelling in Geography (Code: 853) in ISC Class 12 opens the door to a profession as an explorer, environmentalist, and so on. The ISC Class twelfth Geography Syllabus covers many essential geographical components of India, like inhabitants, land, mountains, local weather, and extra. The ISC Class 12 Geography syllabus is huge however can be straightforward for college students genuinely within the topic. Learn and obtain the newest and up to date ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023 in pdf format right here.
ISC Class twelfth Datesheet 2023: Examine the total date sheet with the rules right here
ISC Board Class 12 Geography Syllabus
The ISC class 12 Geography topic is split into two papers: concept and undertaking work. The Paper 1: Concept carries 70 marks the length can be 3 hours. The Undertaking Work can be of 30 marks. Examine right here the ISC Board Class 12 Geography Syllabus beneath.
PAPER I: THEORY (70 Marks)
INDIA IN THE WORLD’S CONTEXT
(i) Locational setting – India: measurement and space. Current significance of the situation of India as regards to the Indian Ocean Rim international locations and the Northern and Western frontiers.
Extent, place as regards to latitude and longitude, size of shoreline and frontiers with neighbouring international locations. The locational benefits of India within the Indian Ocean and as a subcontinent.
(ii) Construction of India – Geological formation, aid and drainage; main physiographic divisions and their traits.
(a) Define of the geological evolution and construction.
Names of the primary Commonplace and Indian geological eras as regards to Indian Geology.
Geological evolution of: the Peninsular Plateau, the Himalayas and the Nice Plains. Distinction between the Peninsular Plateau and the Himalayas.
(b) The three-fold physiographic divisions: the Himalayan mountain advanced, the Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plains and the Peninsular Plateau.
Himalayan mountain advanced: (orthoclinal construction)
The three parallel ranges, the northwest and northeast offshoots, comparability between Western and Jap Himalayas.
Regional divisions of the Himalayas (Kashmir/ Punjab Himalayas, Himachal/ Uttaranchal/ Kumaon Himalayas, Nepal Himalayas, Assam Himalayas).
The aid options – bhabar, tarai, bhangar, khaddar, doabs. Regional divisions of the plains: Rajasthan plain (the Nice Indian desert), Punjab plain, Ganga plain, Brahamaputra/ Assam plain.).
The Peninsular Plateau
The Malwa plateau, Chotanagpur Plateau and Deccan Plateau: the aid options – badland, Western Ghats, Jap Ghats, Aravalis. Comparability between the Western Ghats and the Jap Ghats.
The above three bodily divisions are to be studied as regards to their extent, altitude, slope and landform traits.
Comparability between Western and Jap Coastal Plains and their divisions. The aid options: Lagoons, estuaries, deltas.
Distinction between Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshwadweep islands.
(c) Drainage (i.e. rivers) and drainage programs: Names and sources of the primary rivers and their main tributaries.
Comparability of Himalayan and Peninsular rivers.
(iii) Local weather: India – Elements affecting India’s local weather: Temperature – elements affecting temperature. Atmospheric stress situations throughout the 12 months; origin and mechanism of the monsoon, Jet streams, Southern Oscillations; wind and rainfall distribution throughout the 12 months; traits of the 4 foremost seasons – scorching and dry, scorching and moist, cool and dry, cool and moist as regards to temperature distribution in north and south India, stress, wind situations – distribution of resultant rainfall; variability of rainfall, incidence of droughts and floods. Temperature and rainfall graphs of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Jaisalmer, Leh, and Hyderabad.
Position of varied elements affecting Indian local weather – latitudinal extent, distance from the ocean, northern mountain ranges, physiography, monsoon winds, higher air circulation, western disturbances and tropical cyclones, southern oscillation, El Nino; understanding of the idea and mechanism of monsoon; Indian Monsoonal Regime – onset, rain bearing system, break within the monsoon, retreat of the monsoon;
Seasons of India – as regards to temperature, stress distribution, wind programs and native winds (bathroom, kalbaisaki/ Norwesters, Mango showers; rationalization of thevariability of rainfall in several areas over totally different seasons.
Droughts and Floods – that means, causes, affected areas and mitigation programmes. Temperature and rainfall graphs of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Leh, Jaisalmer and Hyderabad.
(iv) Pure vegetation: Forest – space lined, significance, use, misuse and potential each for exploitation and conservation. Current forest coverage.
Elements affecting vegetation.
Significance of forest to man; Affect of human exercise on vegetation. Forest space and forest cowl in India. Forest Conservation – want, Social Forestry (Agro forestry, group forestry, industrial farm forestry, non-commercial farm forestry, city forestry); Forest Conservation Motion: Van Mahotsav, Chipko Motion.
Nationwide Forest Coverage (1988): targets of the Forest Coverage.
Inhabitants and Human settlements (i) Inhabitants of India in comparison with six international locations – China, Australia, USA, Canada, Russia and Brazil.
Inhabitants of India as in comparison with the opposite six international locations as regards to proportion of world inhabitants and India’s place on the earth.
(ii) Nationwide and State stage patterns of inhabitants distribution.
Definition of census. Index of focus (highest and lowest index of focus as per the newest census), density of inhabitants – arithmetic and physiological.
Spatial distribution of inhabitants in India. Comparability of the density on the State stage.
(iii) Sample of inhabitants development within the final three a long time; implications for growth.
Which means of terminologies corresponding to inhabitants, start charge, dying charge, inhabitants development charge, pure development charge and migratory development.
Inhabitants development of India at nationwide stage – to the newest Census. Demographic traits of India on the Nationwide level- start charge, dying charge, and pure development charge based on the newest Census.
Drawing common conclusions concerning the:
Affect of speedy development charge on financial growth, on surroundings; want for deliberate growth (to take care of the ecological steadiness).
(iv) Migration developments over the past 25 years.
Clarification of the essential phrases – step-wise migration push and pull elements.
Sorts (Nationwide and Worldwide migration, inter migration and intra migration) and developments of migration.
Streams of migration: (rural-rural, rural-urban, urban-urban and urban-rural).
Causes for migration – pure, financial, political and social.
(v) Demographic attributes at Nationwide stage – developments and patterns of: 1. Rural city inhabitants 2. Age and intercourse composition 3. Literacy ranges 4. Working and non-working inhabitants; implications for growth.
Research of the causes and developments of rural city composition, age and intercourse ratio, literacy stage, working and non-working inhabitants on the Nationwide stage (highest and lowest figures for every of the above) within the newest census. Implications for growth.
(vi) Rural settlements – measurement and variety of villages as per the newest census. Sorts and patterns in hill areas, plains and coastal places.
Distinction between Rural and City settlements; Rural and City Inhabitants. Classification of villages as per the newest census.
Elements affecting the kinds (distinction between compact and dispersed) and patterns (linear, round, star formed, rectangular, shapeless) of rural settlements in plains, coastal areas, mountains and plateau areas.
(vii) City settlements – measurement classification of cities as per the newest census. Research of inhabitants development in India.
Definition of an City space based on the newest census; City agglomeration, conurbation, city sprawl, ribbon settlement, infill, metropolis, megalopolis, slums, squatter settlements.
Elements that affect the expansion of city centres in India. Issues and benefits of city development.
Sources of India and their Utilisation
(i) Want for environmental administration vis-à-vis growth.
Understanding that from the event standpoint, surroundings could mistakenly be seen as a ‘useful resource’ to be exploited, whereas, surroundings must be considered as a ‘capital’ that must be managed rigorously.
(ii) Land assets: Land use sample in India – high quality of cultivable land, measurement of land holdings.
Defining the time period land useful resource; its significance and issues. Land use sample –defining the phrases and elements influencing: web sown space, space sown greater than as soon as, forests, land not accessible for cultivation, everlasting pastures and different grazing lands, land beneath miscellaneous tree crops, culturable (cultivable) waste, present fallow land, fallow apart from present fallow, high quality and measurement of cultivable land holdings. Strategies to scale back fragmentation of land holdings.
(iii) Water assets and varieties of irrigation.
Water Sources: Their demand and utilization. Sorts of water assets: floor and floor water.
Which means, significance and wish for irrigation in India.
Use and misuse of water for irrigation; examine of other strategies of irrigation (sprinkler and drip). Overwatering – causes and areas affected by it; risks of overwatering.
Conservation of water assets together with their administration; rain water harvesting.
(iv) Agriculture: Sorts, growth and issues.
(a) Moist and dry farming, crop rotation, depth of cropping, issues of Indian agriculture; use of know-how in agriculture. Trendy inputs, change over from subsistence to industrial agriculture, want for Inexperienced Revolution. Diversifying Indian agriculture – significance of animal husbandry.
Moist and dry agriculture: Crop rotation. Depth of cropping – idea and crops related; issues of Indian agriculture; Use of recent know-how – Inexperienced revolution: Want, influence and issues, second inexperienced revolution – methods for second inexperienced revolution. Diversification of Indian agriculture – Animal Husbandry: that means and its significance in Indian Agriculture.
(b) Research of crops:
(i) Circumstances of development (soil, temperature, rainfall necessities, crop seasons). (ii) World manufacturing and India’s place. (iii) Main producing States in India and their rank as producers of the next crops:
Meals grains – Rice, Wheat, Coarse grains – Sorghum (Jowar, Maize), Pennisetum (Bajra or Camboo), Eleusine (Ragi), Pulses.
Business and Industrial crops – Espresso (Nilgiris), Tea, Cotton, Sugarcane, Jute, Groundnut.
Circumstances of development: For every crop, the kind of soil, temperature vary, rainfall vary, the crop seasons are to be accomplished.
Foremost areas of development of the above crops.
Title of the main producer (nation) on the earth for every of the above crops (Meals grains, industrial and industrial crops) and India’s place on the earth.
Significance of Market Gardening and Orchard Farming – causes and developments in growth lately.
(v) Fishing in India and Japan.
Elements influencing growth of fishing in India and Japan.
(vi) Sources of Power
(a) Minerals and energy assets.
Distinguishing between metallic and non-metallic minerals; ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.
Manufacturing and distribution (main State and one main centre) of Iron ore, mica, coal, manganese and petroleum; their makes use of.
Iron ore, mica, coal: their varieties.
The primary energy assets – Nuclear thermal, hydel; three foremost centres for technology of nuclear thermal energy in India.
(b) Standard vitality sources – fossil fuels and firewood, potential (Indian context) and limitations of every supply, strategies of harnessing and environmental penalties of their use.
Standard vitality sources:
Coal and Petroleum. Environmental considerations with regard to their use (world warming, thermal air pollution in waters, fly ash, atmospheric air pollution, and so on.).
(c) Non-conventional vitality sources – varieties of non-conventional sources (bio-mass, photo voltaic, wind, ocean, hydel, geothermal); their environmental penalties; want to advertise non-conventional vitality sources.
Benefits and limitations of every non-conventional vitality supply.
Makes use of of those vitality sources and distribution.
Understanding the necessity to promote non-conventional vitality sources.
(The examine ought to embody makes use of and the distribution of the above vitality assets).
Infrastructural Sources (Improvement of Transport and Communication).
(a) Railways, Roadways, Water transport (inland and coastal), Air transport, Pipelines – these modes of transport are to be studied with regard to –
Elements: pure and financial that govern the distribution of railways, roadways, water and air transport; density and development. Patterns in India.
The current place, areas properly and poorly served by every mode.
Issues – comparative benefit of every mode of transport, nationwide targets to be achieved within the growth of modes of transport (The Golden quadrilateral – its north-south and east-west hall).
Ports, their location and benefit; main exports and imports of various ports. Nature and route of commerce from the ports. Worldwide buying and selling patterns and merchandise within the final 5 years.
Distinguishing between harbour and port; pure and synthetic harbours. Location of main seaports in India and their benefit; foremost gadgets of export and import from totally different ports (Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Kochi).
(b) Communication – significance of communication in rural growth and its coverage. Significance of infrastructure as key to the event of an industrial economic system.
Trendy technique of communication – satellites and distant sensing – Geographic Data Methods (GIS), mobile telephones, radio, doordarshan, web; distinction between mass communication and tele communication. Infrastructure as key to the event of an industrial economic system.
(a) Research of the situation and distribution of essential industrial centres; a common comparability of disparities.
(b) Main and minor industrial areas – elements governing their development.
Causes for the unfold of business areas; Perceive how the distribution of heavy and shopper industries varies within the totally different areas; Understanding why sure industries are extra in a selected area.
Main Industrial areas: Mumbai-Pune, Hooghly, Bengaluru-Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Chota Nagpur, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut.
Elements governing the expansion of the above to be studied.
(c) Location, manufacturing and development of the next industries:
(i) Agro primarily based industries – Cotton textile
Maharashtra (Mumba), Gujarat (Ahmedabad).
(ii) Mineral primarily based industries – Iron and metal and Petrochemicals.
The next industrial centres of every trade are to be studied.
Iron and Metal:
TISCO (Jamshedpur), Vishweshvarya Iron and Metal Plant (Bhadravati), Bhilai Iron and Metal Plant (Bhilai), Rourkela Iron and Metal Plant (Rourkela), Hindustan Metal Restricted Plant (Durgapur), Bokaro Iron and Metal Plant (Bokaro), Salem Iron and Metal Plant (Salem), Vishakhapatnam Iron and Metal Plant (Vishakhapatnam).
(Built-in and mini metal vegetation: that means and benefits to be studied.)
Petro Chemical compounds:
UDEX (Koyali), IPCL (Vadodara).
NOTE: Elements chargeable for the situation, growth and current standing of the Agro and Mineral primarily based industries talked about above, in addition to the primary distribution centres are to be studied.
Distinction between key and footloose trade; industrial clusters and indices to determine industrial clusters.
Maps and sketches of Industrial areas and centres (location of agro primarily based and mineral primarily based industries) needs to be the premise for explaining the sample of business growth.
(d) Tourism trade – Main pure and cultural vacationer areas in India. Their particular options and stage of growth – influence on surroundings and native economic system. Vacationer flows.
Definition of tourism, development of tourism, benefits of tourism, essential locations – each pure and cultural. Optimistic and detrimental influence of tourism, issues of tourism and measures for growing eco-tourism.
Regional Financial Improvement
Understanding of the that means of growth, multilevel planning and planning areas. The case research can be undertaken as regards to the benefits and drawbacks which have accrued to the folks and space – facets lined can be their geographical location, useful resource base, developmental historical past, agriculture and industrial actions, problems with growth.
Space growth in Chhattisgarh area – mining, silk trade and farming. Electronics trade in Bengaluru– causes for its growth, extent, nationwide and worldwide linkages and issues. Progress of Haldia port, its industries and hinterland. Map Work
A query on map work can be set to determine, label and find any of the next gadgets studied in matters 1-6.
Locational setting of India: (To determine)
804’N-3706’N, 6807’E- 97025’E (Latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India); 23.5 0 N (Central latitude) and 82.5 0 E (Central longitude); Indira Col and Cape Comorin (Northern and Southern level of mainland India).
Mountains: (To mark and label)
3 parallel ranges of Himalayas, Trans Himalayan vary – Karakoram, Pir Panjal, Ladakh, Zaskar. Aravallis, Vindhyas, Satpura, Western and Jap Ghats, Nilgiris, Cardamom hills, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia hills, Patkoi hills, Naga hills, Mizo hills.
Plains: (To mark and label)
Indus-Ganga-Brahmapurtra area, Konkan, Kanara, Malabar, Coromandel, Northern Circars.
Plateaus: (To mark and label)
Malwa, Chota Nagpur, Deccan.
Peninsula: (To mark and label)
Waterbodies: (To mark and label)
Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Palk Strait, Gulf of Kachchh, Gulf of Khambat.
Rivers: (To determine)
Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, Ganga, Yamuna, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi, Chambal, Betwa, Ken, Son, Damodar, Luni, Narmada, Tapi, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Brahmaputra.
Inhabitants: (To determine)
The States of India (based on the newest Census) for the next: The Lowest density of inhabitants, highest density of inhabitants, highest stage of urbanization, lowest stage of urbanisation, highest Index of Focus of inhabitants, the best intercourse ratio, the bottom intercourse ratio, the best literacy, the bottom literacy;
City cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai , Kolkata and Bengaluru.
Agriculture: (To determine)
Foremost producing States/areas of India for: Rice, Wheat, Espresso, Tea, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Groundnut.
Minerals: (To determine)
Iron Ore (Keonjhar, Singhbhum), Coal (Jharia, Bokaro, Raniganj), Petroleum (Digboi, Mumbai Excessive), Manganese (Nagpur).
Industries: (To determine)
Cotton Textiles: Mumbai, Ahmedabad.
Iron and Metal: TISCO(Jamshedpur), Bhilai Iron and Metal Plant (Bhilai), Vishakhapatnam Iron and Metal Plant (Vishakhapatnam);
Transport: (To determine)
The route of: Golden Quadrilateral – 4 sides, North south Hall, East West Hall.
Ports: (To determine)
Kandla, Mumbai, Kochi, Tuticorin, Haldia, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Kolkata.
Candidates needs to be ableto perceive and interpret the sketch maps/ diagrams, graphs associated to the next matters:
Locational setting of India;
Reduction and drainage of India;
PAPER II: PRACTICAL WORK AND PROJECT WORK (30 Marks)
Candidates can be required to undertake the next Sensible work and Undertaking work .
Any two of the next matters to be undertaken:
(i) Drawing of scales: linear, graphic scales displaying major and secondary divisions; consultant fractions and assertion of scale strategies.
(ii) Drawing of cross-section or profiles of essential contours, viz. ridge, plateau, escarpment, valley, conical hill, varieties of slope, sea cliffs, waterfalls, spurs, by utilizing vertical exaggeration and horizontal equal.
(iii) Understanding and illustrating location references of SOI maps.
(iv) Map studying and interpretation of survey of India maps: Research can be primarily based on consultant parts of any two topographical sheets. It should embody the outline of location, extent, aid options, drainage, land use, settlement patterns, communications and inferences about human occupations and stage of financial growth of the realm.
(v) Introduction to Geographic Data System: Parts of visible interpretation of distant sensing maps/ photos.
Color significance within the picture and true color (false color composition): texture; measurement; form; shadow; affiliation.
(Reference materials – Wikipedia, Google. earth, IIRS Hyderabad).
(vi) Elementary ideas of surveying an space: getting ready two plans of faculty compound and/or a small space utilizing Aircraft desk/ GPS.
Undertaking Work (Project):
Native area surveys on any one of many following can be submitted as Undertaking Report. These surveys needs to be organized with a desk of contents, pattern taken and statistical strategies used, interview schedule. The report needs to be organized systematically, and the conclusions needs to be clearly said.
(i) Agricultural land use survey.
Select a district or topographical map of an space 1: 250000 and make a sketch map displaying land use; evaluate the patterns of those. Alternatively, a neighborhood village could possibly be chosen and the fields mapped from the cadastral map with info on the crops grown in several seasons and the situation of the village, its roads and landmarks, if any.
(ii) Family survey of about 30-60 households of a village or locality.
Household measurement, age construction, academic background, occupation, involvement of women and men in financial exercise, academic service. Draw conclusions to replicate the financial growth of the households.
(iii) Amenity examine.
Research of hospitals in a metropolis, colleges (faculty the place you studied), publish workplaces, municipal zones throughout the metropolis (blocks in a village examine) – causes for journey (primarily based on the significance and demand for the place), journey time, journey distance, mapping the hinterland of the service.
(iv) Research of a producing trade or a self-employed particular person.
Go to a producing unit or self-employed particular person – cycle or automotive restore store, small fabricating unit, manufacturing unit if close by and discover out – supply of uncooked materials, provide routes, ultimate product, areas the place it’s despatched, manpower power and their group.
(v) Space growth of a multipurpose river valley undertaking – influence on the area.
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